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Input/Research outcomes

  • Various price and non-prices factors affecting maize supply in major producing states were analyzed using modified Nerlovian Lagged Adjustment Model and short and long run elasticities  w.r.t. such factors were worked out. The risk factors were found to have profound impact on maize acreage allocation decisions of the farmers apart from pre-sowing rainfall and poultry population in few states.
  • In addition to price factors, risk component in maize production vis-à-vis its competing crops played a vital role in supply response relations. Therefore, policies should be aimed at risk coverage rather than assured prices. It is needed to break the stagnated productivity levels of coarse cereals for better supply response. Increased irrigation base has taken a toll on acreage under maize and is mostly grown as rain-fed crop. Poultry population has also contributed to maize acreage in the states of MP and HP where poultry sector is in initial growth phase.
  • The modified Narlovian Lagged Adjustment Model was used to examine the acreage (as a proxy for supply) response of soybean in 3 major producing states accounting for over 85% production of soybean in the country. The competing crops of soybean were identified from amongst the substitute crops grown in same cropping season. The factors such as price, yield, gross returns, price risk, yield risk, gross return risk along with percentage irrigated area, pre-sowing rainfall and poultry population in the state were considered for analyzing the soybean response relations as affected by such variables.  OLS technique/GLS technique was used through step-up linear regression to zero in on the most important factors affecting soybean acreage in the major producing state and in India.
  • The supply response analysis indicates that the boost in soybean production in India has been primarily due to increase in acreage. Poultry population and percentage irrigated area in the major soybean producing states have been important driving forces for increasing soybean acreage. The other soybean acreage contributing factors have been relative yields and prices w.r.t. the competing crops.
  • In MP, although soybean yield has not improved, the relative yield along with relative prices risk w.r.t. competing crops have had an additive affect on soybean acreage. In addition to price factors, risk component in soybean production vis-a-vis its competing crops play a vital role in supply response relations. Hence, policies issues must be aimed at risk coverage rather than price guarantees.
  • Decomposition analysis was used to examine the area, productivity and their interaction effect on maize and soybean production It was concluded that area affect in maize has been highly pronounced in Bihar, Karnataka, Punjab and UP.  The yield has been major contributing factor affecting maize acreage in UP, Rajasthan, Punjab, MP, J&K, HP and AP. Country’s maize production has increased mainly due to increase in yield. However in some of the states like UP and Punjab, there has been a significant decline in maize acreage in spite of increase in productivity. It reveals that the maize acreage has been shifted to the marginal/sub-marginal lands in the states of Punjab, Rajasthan, UP, Karnataka and Bihar.
  • Decomposition analysis carried out for soybean in states viz. M.P., Maharashtra, Rajasthan and India level inferred that soybean production in selectee states and country level has increased primarily due to increase in soybean acreage. Productivity of soybean has not increased much in the country. In MP, although soybean acreage has increased, the crop appears to have been pushed to marginal lands as indicated by negative A-Y interaction affect.
  • A database consists of research projects records has been created and information on patents obtained, publications etc. Administrator level, Operator Level and End-User level data accessing system has been created. Database MS-Access has been used for both front-end and back-end development of this system.
  • Windows based Computer Software was developed and tested for formulation of bankable project reports used by poultry farmers to apply for loan to establish commercial layer & broilers farm.
  • Based on primary surveys conducted in peri-urban area of Bareilly, high-end elite Delhi and Gurgaon for packaged and unpackaged poultry products, the marketing channels were identified for unorganized and organized sector. The marketing cost, margins, price-spread and marketing efficiency in these channels was worked out and compared.
  • Based on socio economic profile of selected poultry consumers from Bareilly were categorized in three income classes (Low <1.0 lakh, Medium 1.0-2.0 lakh and High > 2.0 lakh).  The results reveals that as the consumers income increases the expenditure on poultry egg also increase across the categories of income. The positive association between income class and monthly egg consumption reveals that the poultry products are not Giffen goods. The majority of egg consumer (60%) preferred to purchase package of 12 eggs. Similarly, consumers purchased egg on weight basis preferred retail egg package of 1.0.kg.  The consumers preferred medium size eggs from retailers as per their convenience followed by CARI sale counter as it supplied fresh and quality eggs.
  • About 70% of poultry birds arrivals to the regulated market are dressed and remaining were sold on live basis. The value addition attributed to dressing was Rs. 33/kg observed. The most prominent marketing channel was Producer→ Commission agent→ Supplier cum dresser→ Hotels/retailers→ Consumer.
  • The study of wholesale Ghazipur poultry market revealed that the manual dressing of chicken yields about 23 products with virtually no slaughter waste and the cost of manual dressing as market fee was Rs. 2/crate for 8-14 birds. The dressing percentage in mechanical processing range from 65-70% and the dressing costs was Rs. 9/bird and does not yield as many products. The cost of manual dressing valued in terms of wages paid to the labourers in kind in the form of poultry slaughter waste/by-products was Rs.2.70/ kg. Nearly 50% value addition takes place through manual dressing of chicken over the wholesale cost on live weight basis. Besides, high initial capital investment, the mechanical processing does not provide employment to the kind of persons that are engaged in manual chicken dressing and also has limited employment generation potential.
  • The comparative advantage and diversity in International trade of 10 major Indian poultry products exported/ imported was studied. The Export Performance Ratio as suggested Balassa (1965) was used to work out the revealed comparative advantage. The Simpson diversity index (SDI) was applied to measure the diversity in poultry products basket of Indian poultry exports/ imports.
  • The Simpson Diversity Index was worked out to study the changes in composition of exports/imports of different poultry products. It was observed that the SDI for poultry exports during pre-WTO era ranged from 0.27 to 0.56 whereas the products export basket was more diversified during post WTO era with SDI ranging from 0.52 to 0.65. The SDI was lower for Indian poultry exports during 2005-07 as many of importing countries of Indian poultry products imposed complete ban due to reported incidences of avian influenza.  
  • Environmental impact of poultry waste and land required for its disposal was worked out based on primary data collected from poultry producers in the production belt in and around Kashipur, Bazpur, Gadarpur, district Udham Singh Nagar and Haldwani district Nainital (UK).
  • Generation of biogas appeared to be the best and most profitable alternative for utilizing poultry waste. It also resulted in reduction of green house gases thereby paving way for earning through trading of carbon credits. The next best alternative was observed to be vermi-composting utilizing poultry cage droppings (layer farms) and other organic material (such as dung, dry leaves, straw etc.). Feeding dried poultry droppings to ruminants in the concentrate mix was the least capital intensive alternative to utilize poultry waste.
  • The commercial poultry layer and broiler farms are established in plains areas of Uttarakhand to cater the demand of Kumaon hills. The poultry products are supplied from these districts and other production catchments to fulfill the major demand of Kumaon hills involves high transportation cost, trader profit margins and other overhead expenses leading to inflated prices in these areas.
  • The primary survey was conducted in hilly area of Nainital district to examine the economic status of backyard/family poultry reared, demand-supply gaps, and marketing cost, margins, price for poultry products. During survey, it was observed that the poultry products are supplied from plains of Nainital district and nearby production centers to fulfill the demand supply gaps of Kumaon hill. It involves additional transportation cost and other expenses leading to high prices of eggs and dressed chicken in hilly areas.


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